Follow-up and Implementation: Mandates
ENVIRONMENT: Polution MANDATES
Promote the adoption, implementation and enforcement of national legislation , regulations, standards and policies that provide for high levels of environmental protection , recognizing the right of each country to set its own levels of environmental protection and, to this end, reinforce cooperative partnerships, placing particular emphasis on achieving cleaner air, enhancing access to safe water and sanitation services, and strengthening national and regional capacities for integrated water resources management and for waste management;(Plan of Action Québec, 2001).
Recognize the key role that technology plays in managing the environmental aspects related to energy, and encourage the exchange of technology, information and experiences, as well as share views on the Clean Development Mechanism. (Plan of Action Santiago, 1998).
Initiative 41. Develop strategies that encourage policies and programs for prevention of and protection against pollution, cleaning up of the environment, and waste treatment, strengthening sustainable urban development. These policies may include public-private sector associations, market-based programs, and other volunteer programs. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).
Initiative 43. Promote the exchange of information and experiences among the mayors of the Hemisphere on the most appropriate practices for urban environmental stewardship, promotion of non-polluting consumer practices, sustainable transportation, environmental impact, and sewage treatment. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).
II.4. Water Resources and Coastal Areas
Recognizing that the primary challenges to the attainment of sustainable development in this area include:
Taking into consideration the social, economic, and environmental value of inland, coastal, and marine water resources, the Governments will carry out the following initiatives (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).
- Assurance and improvement of the conservation, sustainable management and utilization of water resources, including the development of integrated programs and institutional capacity;
- Prevention of the contamination of water resources and assurance that drinking water supplies are safe and adequate;
- Promotion of cooperation among countries at bilateral, subregional, regional, and hemispheric levels on water resources issues;
- Promotion of user participation in the decision-making process on water resources management;
- Conservation and utilization, in a sustainable manner, of inland, coastal, and marine water resources, including wetlands, in the region;
- Promotion of the integrated management and sustainable development of the marine environment and coastal areas; and
- Prevention and control of environmental degradation caused by pollution and the unsustainable use of inland, coastal, and marine water resources that threaten human health and the economic viability and environmental integrity of these resources,
Initiative 54. Develop and strengthen at the national and regional levels, as appropriate, research and monitoring capabilities pertaining to the conservation of inland, coastal, and marine water resources , especially in relation to environmental health parameters, including sanitary water quality criteria and the health status of coral reefs, mangroves, and sea grass beds. In this regard, consideration should be given to the work being done in the region, which should be continued. Data collected will be incorporated into a study that will document the current state of health of the coastal and marine environment; establish benchmark indicators for assessing the effectiveness of national, regional, and international instruments and initiatives; and identify and categorize land and marine-based sources of pollution. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).
Initiative 64. Incorporate environmental policy instruments that mitigate and remediate the negative effects of local emissions, effluents, solid waste, and land use derived from the processes of production, transformation, transportation, and use of energy and of minerals. Such instruments include market mechanisms, incentives, voluntary programs, public-private partnerships, and regulatory initiatives. (Plan of Action Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1996).
21.10 Promote the identification and implementation of private sector projects that reduce greenhouse gas emissions. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).
23.2 Strengthen and build technical and institutional capacity to address environmental priorities such as pesticides, lead contamination, pollution prevention, risk reduction, waste and sanitation issues, improved water and air quality, access to safe drinking water, urban environmental problems, and to promote public participation and awareness. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).
23.7 Convene a meeting of technical experts, designated by each interested country, to develop a framework for cooperative partnership, building on existing institutions and networks to identify priority projects. These projects will initially focus on (1) the health and environmental problems associated with the misuse of pesticides, and (2) the impacts of lead contamination from gasoline and other sources. Subsequent activities could address waste, air, water quality, marine pollution from ships and other sources, and problems associated with urbanization. (Plan of Action Miami, 1994).
© Summits of the Americas 2010